|Abstract: ||A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an
electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more
aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and
simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective
means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The
multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular
electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.