|Abstract: ||The various technologies presented herein relate to phase shifting light
to facilitate any of light switching, modulation, amplification, etc.
Structures are presented where a second layer is juxtaposed between a
first layer and a third layer with respective doping facilitating
formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the first layer and
the second layer, and between the second layer and the third layer.
Application of a bias causes a carrier concentration change to occur at
the p-n junctions which causes a shift in the effective refractive index
per incremental change in an applied bias voltage. The effective
refractive index enhancement can occur in both reverse bias and forward
bias. The structure can be incorporated into a waveguide, an optical
resonator, a vertical junction device, a horizontal junction device, a
Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a tuneable optical filter, etc.