|Abstract: ||Ion implantation or deposition can be used to modify the bulk electrical
properties of topological insulators. More particularly, ion implantation
or deposition can be used to compensate for the non-zero bulk
conductivity due to extrinsic charge carriers. The direct implantation of
deposition/annealing of dopants allows better control over carrier
concentrations for the purposes of achieving low bulk conductivity. Ion
implantation or deposition enables the fabrication of inhomogeneously
doped structures, enabling new types of device designs.