|A sensor uses microneedle electrodes and multi-frequency electrical
impedance spectroscopy to monitor plant water status in real time. The
microneedle can be between 10 and 1000 microns in length, enabling
precise placement in a variety of plant tissues. The impedance behavior
can distinguish electrical properties and physiological functions of
different plant tissue types. Therefore, impedance measurements can be
used to monitor water stress to prevent irreversible damage to a plant
and to enable improvement of plant biomass or fruit yield.