|A method is provided for isolating and labeling discrete features in a spectral radiographic image recorded as a set of images in different energy channels. The disclosed method involves creating a profile for each of at least some pixels in the spectral radiographic image. The profiles are sequences of pixel values, in which each pixel value is a photon count or a similar radiographic exposure value indicative of the attenuation of a portion of the scanning beam in a respective energy channel. Iterative hierarchical clustering is used to cluster the pixels on the basis of their respective profiles. Labels are assigned to one or more of the resulting clusters. In implementations, each label can be associated with an inferred material composition or with an inference that the material composition is unknown.