|An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an
electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the
electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron
vanadium phosphorous. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to
oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method
of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an
ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and
mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.